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         (1)    DNA Helicase     (2)       DNA Gyrase          (3)
DNA Strand --->     Unwinds       --->      Relieves         --->    Single-stranded
5' → 3'          double helix               tension                      DNA
                    into two                                                    |
                   separate                                                    |
                   strands                                                    V
                 |                       (4)       Primase       (5)                 |
                 |                Synthesizes RNA primer       |                    |
                 V                                                 V                    |
         (6) DNA Polymerase III     (7)   DNA Polymerase III        V
     Adds new nucleotides in 5'→3'       synthesizes new DNA
     direction on leading strand               on lagging strand
            |                                                |                    ^
            V                                                V                    |
        (8) DNA Polymerase I           (9)    DNA Ligase           <---   Connects Okazaki
     Removes RNA primer and fills       Joins Okazaki fragments                 fragments on
          gap with DNA nucleotides                                                    lagging strand
             |                                                                        |
             V                                                                        V
   (10) DNA ligase                                                         New DNA double helix
 Joins DNA fragments                <-----------------------------------------------------
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