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| Class               | Prototype        | Primary Uses in Psychiatry                                    | Neurotransmitter                                       |
|---------------------|------------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------|--------------------------------------------------------|
| **Antidepressants** | **Cyclic Antidepressants (TCA)** | **a) Amitriptyline**<br>**b) Imipramine**<br>**c) Desipramine**<br>**d) Nortriptyline** | **Anxiety Disorders (Panic, GAD, PTSD, OCD)<br>Depressive Disorders**<br>Manage violent behaviors (Benzodiazepines)<br>Symptomatic management of delirium (Benzodiazepines)<br>Alcohol withdrawal symptoms (Benzodiazepines) | **Mainly norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibition** |
| | **Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI)** | **a) Phenelzine**<br>**b) Selegiline** | **Depression** | **Inhibits the breakdown of monoamines (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine)** |
| | **Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)** | **b) Fluoxetine**<br>**c) Sertraline**<br>**d) Paroxetine**<br>**e) Escitalopram** | **Anxiety Disorders<br>Depressive Disorders** | **Inhibits serotonin reuptake** |
| | **Atypical Antidepressants** | **a) Duloxetine**<br>**b) Venlafaxine**<br>**c) Bupropion**<br>**d) Mirtazapine**<br>**e) Venlafaxine** | **Anxiety Disorders<br>Depressive Disorders** | **Varied mechanisms, including serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, and dopamine reuptake inhibition** |
| **Anxiolytics** | **Benzodiazepines** | **a) Alprazolam**<br>**b) Lorazepam**<br>**c) Chlordiazepoxide**<br>**d) Clonazepam**<br>**e) Diazepam** | **Anxiety Disorders<br>Manage violent behaviors<br>Symptomatic management of delirium** | **Enhances the effect of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)** |
| | **Non-Benzodiazepines** | **a) Buspirone** | **Anxiety Disorders** | **Partial agonist at serotonin receptors** |
| **Mood Stabilizer** | **Lithium** | **Bipolar Disorder** | **Modulates various neurotransmitters, including serotonin and norepinephrine** |
| | **Anticonvulsants used as Mood Stabilizer** | **a) Carbamazepine**<br>**b) Divalproex (valproic acid & Sodium divalproex)**<br>**c) Lamotrigine**<br>**d) Topiramate** | **Bipolar Disorder<br>Substance Abuse** | **Varied mechanisms, including sodium channel blockade and modulation of GABA** |
| | **Alcohol** | **a) Disulfiram**<br>**b) Acamprosate**<br>**c) Naltrexone**<br>**d) Barbiturates** | **Substance Use Disorders** | **Disulfiram: Inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase<br>Acamprosate: Modulates glutamate<br>Naltrexone: Opioid receptor antagonist** |
| **Stimulant** | **a) Disulfiram**<br>**b) Modafinil** | **Alcohol Use Disorder**<br>**Narcolepsy** | **Disulfiram: Inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase<br>Modafinil: Enhances wakefulness, exact mechanism unclear** |
| **Opioids** | **a) Methadone**<br>**b) Naltrexone**<br>**c) Suboxone**<br>**d) Naloxone** | **Substance Use Disorders** | **Methadone: Opioid agonist<br>Naltrexone: Opioid receptor antagonist<br>Suboxone: Combination of buprenorphine (partial agonist) and naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist)<br>Naloxone: Opioid receptor antagonist** |
| **Anticholinergic** | **a) Benztropine**<br>**b) Diphenhydramine** | **Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders<br>Manage Violent Behaviors<br>Symptomatic Management of Delirium** | **Modulates acetylcholine levels** |
| **Antipsychotics** | **a) Chlorpromazine**<br>**b) Fluphenazine**<br>**c) Haloperidol**<br>**d) Clozapine**<br>**e) Risperidone**<br>**f) Aripiprazole**<br>**g) Quetiapine**<br>**h) Ziprasidone**<br>**i) Quetiapine** | **Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders<br>Manage Violent Behaviors<br>Symptomatic Management of Delirium** | **Dopamine and serotonin receptor modulation** |
| **Anticholinesterase & Acetylcholinesterase** | **a) Donepezil**<br>**b) Rivastigmine**<br>**c) Memantine**<br>**d) Galantamine** | **Dementia** | **Donepezil, Rivastigmine, and Galantamine: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors<br>Memantine: NMDA receptor antagonist** |
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