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BFS::

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

class Edge{
    public:
    int src;
    int dest;
};

class Graph
{
    public:
    vector<vector<int>> adjList;
    Graph(vector<Edge> &edges, int v)
    {
        adjList.resize(v);
        for(auto &edge: edges)
        {
            adjList[edge.src].push_back(edge.dest);
            adjList[edge.dest].push_back(edge.src);
        }
    }
};

void recursiveBFS(Graph &graph, queue<int> &q, vector<bool> &discovered)
{
    if(q.empty())
    {
        return;
    }
    int v = q.front();
    q.pop();
    cout<<v<<" ";
    for(int u: graph.adjList[v])
    {
        if(!discovered[u])
        {
            discovered[u] = true;
            q.push(u);
        }
    }
    recursiveBFS(graph, q, discovered);
}
void DFS(Graph &graph, int v, vector<bool> &discovered)
{
    discovered[v] = true;
    cout<<v<<" ";
    for(int u: graph.adjList[v])
    {
        if(!discovered[u])
        {
            DFS(graph, u, discovered);
        }
    }
}
int main()
{
    vector<Edge> edge;
    int v,e;
    int source;
    int destination;
    cout<<"Enter the number of vertices and edges in graph : ";
    while(true)
    {
        if(cin>>v>>e)
        {
            break;
        }
            cin.clear();
            cin.ignore(1000, '\n');
            cout<<"Enter again!"<<endl;
    }

    cout<<"Enter the source and destination of the edges : "<<endl;
    for(int i=0 ; i<e ; i++)
    {
            if(cin>>source>>destination && source<v+1 && destination<v+1)
            {
                // if(source<v && destination<v)
                // {
                    edge.push_back({source,destination});
                    // break;
            }
            else{

                cin.clear();
            cin.ignore(1000, '\n');
            cout<<"This vertex not present !";
            i--;
            }
        // }
    }
    
    Graph graph(edge,v+1);
    vector<bool> discovered1(v+1,false);
    vector<bool> discovered2(v+1,false);
    queue<int> q;
    int stratnode;
    cout<<"Enter the starting node : ";
    cin>>stratnode;
    q.push(stratnode);
    discovered1[stratnode] = true;
    cout<<"BFS : "<<endl;
    recursiveBFS(graph,q,discovered1);
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"DFS : "<<endl;
    if(discovered2[stratnode] == false){
    DFS(graph, stratnode, discovered2);}
}




NQUEEN::

#include <bits/stdc++.h>

using namespace std;
class Solution {
  public:
    bool isSafe1(int row, int col, vector < string > board, int n) {
      // check upper element
      int duprow = row;
      int dupcol = col;

      while (row >= 0 && col >= 0) {
        if (board[row][col] == 'Q')
          return false;
        row--;
        col--;
      }

      col = dupcol;
      row = duprow;
      while (col >= 0) {
        if (board[row][col] == 'Q')
          return false;
        col--;
      }

      row = duprow;
      col = dupcol;
      while (row < n && col >= 0) {
        if (board[row][col] == 'Q')
          return false;
        row++;
        col--;
      }
      return true;
    }

  public:
    void solve(int col, vector < string > & board, vector < vector < string >> & ans, int n) {
      if (col == n) {
        ans.push_back(board);
        return;
      }
      for (int row = 0; row < n; row++) {
        if (isSafe1(row, col, board, n)) {
          board[row][col] = 'Q';
          solve(col + 1, board, ans, n);
          board[row][col] = '.';
        }
      }
    }

  public:
    vector < vector < string >> solveNQueens(int n) {
      vector < vector < string >> ans;
      vector < string > board(n);
      string s(n, '.');
      for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        board[i] = s;
      }
      solve(0, board, ans, n);
      return ans;
    }
};
int main() {
  int n; // we are taking 4*4 grid and 4 queens
  cin>>n;
  Solution obj;
  vector < vector < string >> ans = obj.solveNQueens(n);
  for (int i = 0; i < ans.size(); i++) {
    cout << "Arrangement " << i + 1 << "\n";
    for (int j = 0; j < ans[0].size(); j++) {
      cout << ans[i][j]<<" ";
      cout << endl;
    }
    cout << endl;
  }
  return 0;
}


JOBSCHEDULING::

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

struct Job{
    public:
    int jobid, deadline, profit;
};

class Solution
{
    public:
    bool static comparison(Job a, Job b)
    {
        return(a.profit>b.profit);
    }

    pair <int,int> jobScheduling(Job jobs[], int n)
    {
        sort(jobs,jobs+n,comparison);
        int maxdead = jobs[0].deadline;
        for(int i=1;i<n;i++)
        {
            maxdead = max(maxdead,jobs[i].deadline);
        }

        int slot[maxdead+1];
        for(int i=0;i<maxdead;i++)
        {
            slot[i] = -1;
        } 
        int countjobs = 0, jobProfit = 0;

        for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
        {
            for(int j=jobs[i].deadline;j>0;j--)
            {
                if(slot[j]==-1)
                {
                    // slot[j] = jobs[i].jobid;
                    slot[j] = i;
                    countjobs++;
                    jobProfit = jobProfit + jobs[i].profit;
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        return make_pair(countjobs,jobProfit);
    }
};
int main()
{
    int n = 4;
    Job jobs[n] = {{1,4,20},{2,1,10},{3,2,40},{4,2,30}};
    Solution obj;
    pair<int,int> ans = obj.jobScheduling(jobs,n);
    cout<<ans.first<<","<<ans.second<<endl;
}


ASTAR:: 

class Coord:
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y

class Node:
    def __init__(self, parent, coord, g, h):
        self.Coord = coord
        self.parent = parent
        self.g = g
        self.h = h
        self.f = self.g + self.h


def a_star(game, start, end):

    # initialization
    print("Solving....")
    open = []
    close = []
    start_node = Node(None, Coord(start.x, start.y), 0, 0)
    goal_node = Node(None, Coord(end.x, end.y), 0, 0)

    open.append(start_node)
    found = False

    # loop condition
    while(len(open)!=0):
        curr = open[0]
        curr_index = 0

        # finding least f(n) node in open list
        for index, item in enumerate(open):
            if(item.f < curr.f):
                curr = item
                curr_index = index

        close.append(curr.Coord)
        # print(close)
        open.pop(curr_index)
        # print(open)

    # checking for solution goal node
        if(curr.Coord.x == goal_node.Coord.x and curr.Coord.y == goal_node.Coord.y):
            found = True
            solution = []
            while(curr is not None):
                solution.append(curr.Coord)
                curr = curr.parent
            
            return solution[::-1]

        
        # exploration
        for new_pos in [(0, -1), (0, 1), (-1, 0), (1, 0)]:
            new_coord = Coord(curr.Coord.x + new_pos[0], curr.Coord.y + new_pos[1])
            # print(new_coord.x, new_coord.y)
            visited = False
            # if new_coord not in close:
            for node_i in close:
                if(new_coord.x == node_i.x and new_coord.y == node_i.y):
                    # print("Nope1")
                    visited = True
                    continue
                
            if(not visited and new_coord.x <= (len(game) - 1) and new_coord.x >= 0 and new_coord.y <= (len(game[0]) -1) and new_coord.y >= 0):
                if(game[new_coord.x][new_coord.y] == 0):
                    hrt = (new_coord.x - goal_node.Coord.x)**2 + (new_coord.y - goal_node.Coord.y)**2
                    new_node = Node(curr, new_coord, curr.g + 1, hrt)
                    # game[new_coord.x][new_coord.y] = 'V'
                    open.append(new_node)

    return []


def main():
    game = [
        [0,0,0,0,0,0],
        [0,0,1,0,0,0],
        [0,0,1,0,0,0],
        [0,0,1,1,1,0],
        [0,1,0,0,0,0],
        [0,0,0,0,1,0],
        ]

    while True:
        try:
            startx = int(input("Enter start x: "))
            starty = int(input("Enter start y: "))
            break

        except ValueError:
            print("Wrong input!")
            


    start = Coord(startx,starty)
    end = Coord(5,5)

    solution = a_star(game, start, end)

    if(len(solution)==0):
        print("Problem cannot be solved!")
        # insert print logic
    else:
        print("Solution found!")
        for i in range(len(solution)):
            # print(solution[i].x, solution[i].y)
            game[solution[i].x][solution[i].y] = '*'
        
        for i in range(len(game)):
            print(end="|")
            for elem in game[i]:
                print(elem, end="|")
            print()
            # print(game[i])
            
main()


CHATBOT::

import re
import random
# Define the chatbot's rules and responses
rules = {
    'greeting': {
        'patterns': [r'hello', r'hi', r'hey'],
        'responses': ['Hello! Welcome to our food ordering service.', 'Hi there! How can I assist you with your order?']
    },
    'menu': {
        'patterns': [r'menu', r'options'],
        'responses': ['Sure! Here is our menu: ...\n 1.Pav Bhaji \n 2.Vada Pav \n 3.Maggi \n 4.Chai'],
    },
    'food items' : {
        'patterns' : [r'Vada Pav',r'Pav Bhaji',r'Chai',r'Maggi' ],
        'responses' : ['Do you want to confirm your order??'],
    },
    'order': {
        'patterns': [r'order', r'I want to order'],
        'responses': ['Great! Please let me know what items you would like to order.'],
    },
    'customization': {
        'patterns': [r'customize', r'special request'],
        'responses': ['Certainly! Let me know your specific requirements or any dietary restrictions.'],
    },
    'confirm_order': {
        'patterns': [r'confirm', r'place order'],
        'responses': ['Perfect! Your order has been placed. The estimated delivery time is approximately 30 minutes.'],
    },
    'gratitude' : {
        'patterns' : [r'thank you'],
        'responses' : ['My pleasure']
    },
    'cancel_order': {
        'patterns': [r'cancel', r'change', r'update'],
        'responses': ['I apologize for the inconvenience. Please contact our customer support for order modifications.'],
    },
    'goodbye': {
        'patterns': [r'bye', r'goodbye', r'see you'],
        'responses': ['Thank you for choosing our food ordering service. Ab nikal BC yaha se', 'Goodbye!'],
    },
    'default': {
        'responses': ['Im sorry, I didnt understand that. Can you please rephrase?']
    }
}

# Function to match user input with patterns
def match_patterns(user_input, patterns):
    for pattern in patterns:
        match = re.search(pattern, user_input, re.IGNORECASE)
        if match:
            return True
    return False

# Function to get chatbot's response
def get_response(user_input):
    for intent, data in rules.items():
        patterns = data.get('patterns')
        if patterns and match_patterns(user_input, patterns):
            responses = data.get('responses')
            return random.choice(responses)
    return random.choice(rules['default']['responses'])

# Main conversation loop
def chat():
    print("Chatbot: Hello! Welcome to our food ordering service.")
    while True:
        user_input = input("User: ")
        response = get_response(user_input)
        print("Chatbot:", response)

        # Exit the loop if the user says goodbye
        if any(re.search(pattern, user_input) for pattern in rules['goodbye']['patterns']):
            break

# Start the chatbot
chat()


EXPERT::

# Define the rules
def rule1(symptoms):
    if 'fever' in symptoms and 'cough' in symptoms and 'fatigue' in symptoms:
        return 'You may have the flu.'
    return None

def rule2(symptoms):
    if 'fever' in symptoms and 'rash' in symptoms and 'headache' in symptoms:
        return 'You may have meningitis.'
    return None

def rule3(symptoms):
    if 'pain' in symptoms and 'swelling' in symptoms and 'bruising' in symptoms:
        return 'You may have a fracture.'
    return None

def rule4(symptoms):
    if 'abdominal pain' in symptoms and 'diarrhea' in symptoms and 'nausea' in symptoms:
        return 'You may have food poisoning.'
    return None

def rule5(symptoms):
    if 'shortness of breath' in symptoms and 'chest pain' in symptoms and 'dizziness' in symptoms:
        return 'You may be having a heart attack. Please seek medical attention immediately.'
    return None

# Define the expert system
def diagnose(symptoms):
    rules = [rule1, rule2, rule3, rule4, rule5]
    results = []
    for rule in rules:
        result = rule(symptoms)
        if result:
            results.append(result)
    if len(results) == 0:
        return 'Sorry, we could not diagnose your condition.'
    elif len(results) == 1:
        return results[0]
    else:
        return 'You may have multiple conditions: ' + ', '.join(results)

# Test the expert system
symptoms = ['fever','rash','headache','cough','fatigue']
result = diagnose(symptoms)
print(result) # Output: You may have the flu.


CHANGECOLOR::

public Renderer cubeRendere;
public GameObject cube;

[SerializeField] private Color newColor;
[SerializeField] private Color[] colors;

// start
cubeRendere = cube.GetComponent<Renderer>();

public void ChangeMaterial()
{
    newColor = Random.ColorHSV();
    cubeRendere.material.color = newColor;
}