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#pragma GCC optimize("O2,no-stack-protector,unroll-loops")
#define ll long long
#define pb push_back
#define ipar(arr, n) vector<ll> arr(n); for(int i=0;i<n;i++) cin>>arr[i];
#include <cmath>
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
#define pii pair<int, int>;
#define pll pair<ll, ll>;
using namespace std;





ll binpow(ll a,ll b,ll MOD){
    ll ans=1;      // Initialize the result to 1
    a%=MOD;        // Take the modulo of base 'a' with MOD
    while(b){      // Iterate until the exponent 'b' becomes zero
        if(b&1)    // If the least significant bit of 'b' is set (i.e., 'b' is odd)
            ans=(ans*a)%MOD; // Update the result by multiplying 'ans' with 'a' and taking modulo
        b/=2;     // Right-shift 'b' to discard the least significant bit
        a=(a*a)%MOD; // Square 'a' and take modulo
    }
    return ans;   // Return the final result
}


void solve(){
    const ll MOD=998244353;
    ll n,k;cin>>n>>k;
    ll res=binpow(2,n-1,MOD);
    res=binpow(res,k,MOD);
    //res=(res| (1<<k))%MOD;
    cout<<res<<"\n";
}

signed main() {
    ios_base::sync_with_stdio(0);
    cin.tie(0);cout.tie(0);
    int t;
	cin>>t;
	while(t--) solve();
}
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