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kotlin.datastructure

3. lists
    3.1. ForLoopAndList.kt

fun main() {
    IteratingThroughAMutableList()
    IteratingByIndexes()
    IteratingByRangeIndexes()
}

fun IteratingThroughAMutableList() {
    val daysOfWeek = mutableListOf("Sun", "Mon", "Tues", "Wed", "Thur", "Fri", "Sat")

    for (day in daysOfWeek){
        println(day)
    }
}

fun IteratingByIndexes() {
    val daysOfWeek = mutableListOf("Sun", "Mon", "Tues", "Wed", "Thur", "Fri", "Sat")

    for (index in daysOfWeek.indices){
        println("$index: ${daysOfWeek[index]}")
    }
}

fun IteratingByRangeIndexes() {
    val daysOfWeek = mutableListOf("Sun", "Mon", "Tues", "Wed", "Thur", "Fri", "Sat")

    for (index in 1..5) {
        println("$index: ${daysOfWeek[index]}")
    }

    for (index in daysOfWeek.lastIndex downTo 0 step 2) {
        println("$index: ${daysOfWeek[index]}")
    }
}

##############################

    3.2. List.kt

/*
Pick a read-only List when you're working with a specific set of elements that shouldn't change.
 */

fun main() {
    myList()
    printlnList()
    spreadOperator()
}

fun myList() {
    val readOnlyList = listOf(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

    // readOnlyList[1] = 10 // Error

    for (index in readOnlyList.indices) {
        println("$index: ${readOnlyList[index]}")
    }

    println(readOnlyList.indexOf(2))

    println(readOnlyList.joinToString())

    val temp = listOf(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
    println(temp == readOnlyList)

    println(readOnlyList.sum())

    val copyList = readOnlyList.toList()
    println(copyList.joinToString())

    val myList = listOf<String>("Thieu", "Hien")
    println(joinOptions(myList))
}

fun joinOptions(options: Collection<String>) =
    options.joinToString(",", )

fun printlnList() {
    val stringList = listOf("Thieu", "Hien", "Tung")

    println(stringList)
    println(stringList.joinToString())
}

fun spreadOperator() {
    // Toan tu spread (*) dung de "trai" mot mang hoac mot danh sach thanh cac phan tu rieng le khi truyen doi so
    // cho mot ham hoac mot danh sach
    val array = arrayOf(1, 2, 3)
    val list = listOf(-1, 0, *array, 4)
    println(list)  // [-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4]
    println(listOf(-1, 0, array, 4))  // [-1, 0, [Ljava.lang.Integer;@20ad9418, 4]

    fun foo(vararg strings: String) {
        for (string in strings) {
            println(string)
        }
    }

    val strArr = arrayOf("a", "b", "c")
    foo(strings = strArr)
    foo(*strArr)

    val intArray = intArrayOf(1, 2, 3)  // IntArray khac Array<Int>
    val intList = listOf(-1, 0, *intArray.toTypedArray(), 4)
}

######################################

    3.3. MultiDimensionalList.kt

fun main() {
    twoDimensionalLists()

}

fun twoDimensionalLists() {
    var mutList2D = mutableListOf(
        mutableListOf<Int>(0, 0, 0, 0),
        mutableListOf<Int>(0, 0, 0, 0),
        mutableListOf<Int>(0, 0, 0, 0)
    )

    mutList2D = mutableListOf(
        mutableListOf<Int>(0, 1, 2),   //[0]
        mutableListOf<Int>(3, 4, 5)    //[1]
    )

    println(mutList2D[0][0])

    val mutListOfStringAndInt2D = mutableListOf(
        mutableListOf<String>("Practice", "makes", "perfect"),
        mutableListOf<Int>(1, 2)
    )
    println(mutListOfStringAndInt2D)
}

fun threeDimensionalLists() {
    val mutList3D = mutableListOf(
        mutableListOf(mutableListOf<Int>(0,1), mutableListOf<Int>(2,3)),
        mutableListOf(mutableListOf<Int>(4,5), mutableListOf<Int>(6,7))
    )

    println(mutList3D)  // [[[0, 1], [2, 3]], [[4, 5], [6, 7]]]
}

#######################################

    3.4. MutableList.kt

import java.util.*

/*
 A MutableList is a collection capable of holding a list of elements and allows modification of its contents.
 This implies that elements can be added, removed, or updated anytime.

 Key Differences:
    1. Mutability:
        MutableList lets you make changes after it's created.
        The immutable list (for example, listOf) can only be read, not modified.

    2. Functions:
        MutableList includes functions such as add, remove, and clear.
        These functions are not available for the immutable list.
 */

fun main() {
//    commonOperations()
//    batchOperations()
    modifyingLists()
}

fun commonOperations() {
    val list = mutableListOf(1, 2, 3)

    // add
    list.add(4) // list becomes [1, 2, 3, 4]

    // add at index
    list.add(1, 5) // list becomes [1, 5, 2, 3, 4]

    // remove
    list.remove(5) // list becomes [1, 2, 3, 4]

    // removeAt
    list.removeAt(0) // list becomes [2, 3, 4]

    // set
    list.set(1, 10) // list becomes [2, 10, 4]
    list[1] = 10

    // clear
    list.clear() // list becomes []
}

fun iteration() {
    val mutableList = mutableListOf("apple", "banana", "cherry")
    for (item in mutableList) {
        println(item)
    }

    mutableList.forEach { item ->
        println(item)
    }
}

fun batchOperations() {
    val mutableList = mutableListOf("apple", "banana", "cherry")

    // map
    val lengths = mutableList.map { it.length }

    // filter
    val longFruits = mutableList.filter { it.length > 5 }

    // for each
    mutableList.forEach { println(it.uppercase()) }
}

fun modifyingLists() {
    val mutableList = mutableListOf("apple", "banana", "cherry")
    mutableList.replaceAll { it.uppercase(Locale.getDefault()) }
    mutableList.forEach { println(it) }

    val upperCaseList = mutableList.map { it.uppercase(Locale.getDefault()) }
    mutableList.clear()
    mutableList.addAll(upperCaseList)
}

###########################################

fun main() {
//    outputtingAList()
}

fun outputtingAList() {
    val southernCross = mutableListOf("Acrux", "Gacrux", "Imai", "Mimosa")
    println(southernCross.joinToString())   //  Acrux, Gacrux, Imai, Mimosa
    println(southernCross.joinToString(" -> "))   //  Acrux -> Gacrux -> Imai -> Mimosa
    println(southernCross.joinToString(" "))
    println(southernCross.joinToString(""))
}

fun multipleLists() {
    // Join
    val southernCross = mutableListOf("Acrux", "Gacrux", "Imai", "Mimosa")
    val stars = mutableListOf("Ginan", "Mu Crucis")

    val newList = southernCross + stars
    println(newList.joinToString())    //  Acrux, Gacrux, Imai, Mimosa, Ginan, Mu Crucis

    // Compare
    val firstList = mutableListOf("result", "is", "true")
    val secondList = mutableListOf("result", "is", "true")
    val thirdList = mutableListOf("result")

    println(firstList == secondList)  //  true
    println(firstList == thirdList)   //  false
    println(secondList != thirdList)  //  true
}

fun copyListContent() {
    val list = mutableListOf(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
    val copyList = list.toMutableList()
    print(copyList) // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

    val list2 = mutableListOf(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
    val copyList2 = mutableListOf<Int>()
    copyList2.addAll(list2)
    print(copyList2) // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
}

fun otherUsefulFunction() {
    val list = mutableListOf(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

    //  check whether the list is empty.
    list.isEmpty()
    list.isNotEmpty()

    // creates a smaller list (sublist)
    val subList = list.subList(1, 4) // [2, 3, 4]

    // searches for the index of an element in the list.
    if (5 in list) {
        println(list.indexOf(5)) // 4
    }
    print(list.indexOf(7)) // -1

    // search for the minimum and maximum elements in the list.
    list.minOrNull()
    list.maxOrNull()

    // the sum of the elements in the list.
    list.sum()

    // build a sorted list (ascending or descending) from the available list.
    list.sorted()
    list.sortedDescending()
}

##################################

4. variables
    4.1. Equality.kt

fun main() {

}

fun comparison() {
    val msg1 = "Hi"
    val msg2 = "Hi"

    // Structural equality
    print(msg1 == msg2) // msg1 and msg2 have the same state
    print(msg1 == "Hello")


    // Referential equality
    val blueBox = Box(3)          // box with 3 balls
    val azureBox = blueBox
    println(blueBox == azureBox ) // true, it's a copy
    blueBox.addBall()             // add a ball to the first box
    println(blueBox == azureBox ) // true, the second box also contains 4 balls
}

fun referenceEquality() {
    // Kotlin provides a special operator === to check if the variables point to the same object.

    val blueBox = Box(3)
    val azureBox = blueBox
    val cyanBox = Box(3)
    println(blueBox == azureBox)  // true
    println(blueBox === azureBox) // true, azureBox points to the same object
    println(blueBox == cyanBox)   // true
    println(blueBox === cyanBox)  // false, cyanBox points to another object

    print(blueBox !== cyanBox) // true

    blueBox.addBall()
    println(blueBox == cyanBox) // false

    var two = 2
    var anotherTwo = 2
    println(two === anotherTwo) // true
}

class Box(private var ball: Int = 0) {

    fun getBall(): Int {
        return ball
    }

    fun addBall() {
        ball++
    }
}

##################################

    4.2. Variables.kt

/*
 * val (for value) declares a read-only variable
 * var (for variable) declares a mutable variable
 * The value of a const variable is known at compile time and won't be changed at runtime
 */

const val CONST_DOUBLE = 3.14 // const can duoc khoi tao o top-level, ben ngoai function

fun main() {
    val language = "Kotlin"

    var dayOfWeek = "Monday"
    // dayOfWeek = 11; //Error

    val myMutableList = mutableListOf(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
    // mot bien val khong dong nghia voi bat bien (immutable)
    // bien val khong cho phep gan lai nhung duoc phep sua doi noi dung trong no!
    myMutableList.add(6)
    println(myMutableList)

    var `good name` = 5
    `good name` = 6

}

class MyClass {

    companion object {
        const val CONST_INT = 127
        const val MY_STRING = "This is a constant string"

        // const val STRING = readln() // not a constant String!!!
        // const val CONST_ARRAY = arrayOf(1, 2, 3) // error: only primitives and strings are allowed
    }
}


    3.5. WorkWithMutableList.kt

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