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#include<stdio.h>  
#include<conio.h>  
int main() 
{ 
int clm[7][5],req[7][5],alloc[7][5],rsrc[5],avail[5],comp[7];  
int first,p,r,i,j,prc,count,t; 
count=0;  
for(i=1;i<=7;i++)  
comp[i]=0; 
printf("\t BANKERS ALGORITHM IN C \n\n");  
printf("Enter the no of processes : ");  
scanf("%d",&p); 
printf("\n\nEnter the no of resources : ");  
scanf("%d",&r); 
printf("\n\nEnter the claim for each process : ");  
for(i=1;i<=p;i++) 
{ 
printf("\nFor process %d : ",i);  
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
{ 
scanf("%d",&clm[i][j]); 
} 
} 
printf("\n\nEnter the allocation for each process : ");  
for(i=1;i<=p;i++) 
{ 
printf("\nFor process %d : ",i);  
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
{ 
scanf("%d",&alloc[i][j]); 
} 
} 
printf("\n\nEnter total no of each resource : ");  
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
scanf("%d",&rsrc[j]); 
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
{ 
int total=0;  
avail[j]=0; 
for(i=1;i<=p;i++) 
{total+=alloc[i][j];}  
avail[j]=rsrc[j]-total; 
} 
do 
{ 
for(i=1;i<=p;i++) 
{ 
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
{ 
req[i][j]=clm[i][j]-alloc[i][j]; 
} 
} 
printf("\n\nAvailable resources are : ");  
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
{ printf("%d ",avail[j]); } 
printf("\nClaim matrix:\tAllocation matrix:\n");  
for(i=1;i<=p;i++) 
{ 
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
{ 
printf("%d\t",clm[i][j]); 
} 
printf("\t\t\t");  
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
{ 
printf("%d\t",alloc[i][j]); 
} 
printf("\n"); 
} 
prc=0;  
for(i=1;i<=p;i++) 
{ 
if(comp[i]==0)//if not completed 
{ 
prc=i;  
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
{ 
if(avail[j]==0) 
{ 
prc=0;  
break; 
} 
}
} 
if(prc!=0)  
break; 
} 
if(prc!=0) 
{ 
printf("\nProcess ",prc,"runs to completion!");  
count++; 
for(j=1;j<=r;j++) 
{ 
avail[j]+=alloc[prc][j];  
alloc[prc][j]=0; 
clm[prc][j]=0;  
comp[prc]=1; 
} 
} 
} 
while(count!=p&&prc!=0);  
if(count==p) 
printf("\nThe system is in a safe state!!");  
else 
printf("\nThe system is in an unsafe state!!");  
getch(); 
return 0; 
}




#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
int main() {
// Open a source file for reading
int source_fd = open("source.txt", O_RDONLY);
if (source_fd == -1) {
perror("Failed to open source.txt");
exit(1);
}
// Create or open a destination file for writing
int dest_fd = open("destination.txt", O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC, 0644);
if (dest_fd == -1) {
perror("Failed to open destination.txt");
close(source_fd); // Close the source file
exit(1);
}
// Read from the source file and write to the destination file
char buffer[4096]; // A buffer to hold data
ssize_t nread;

while ((nread = read(source_fd, buffer, sizeof(buffer))) > 0) {
if (write(dest_fd, buffer, nread) != nread) {
perror("Write error");
break;
}
}
// Check if there was an error during reading
if (nread < 0) {
perror("Read error");
}
// Close both files
close(source_fd);
close(dest_fd);
return 0;
}





#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
    int bt[20],p[20],wt[20],tat[20],i,j,n,total=0,totalT=0,pos,temp;
    float avg_wt,avg_tat;
    printf("Enter number of process:");
    scanf("%d",&n);
 
    printf("\nEnter Burst Time:\n");
    for(i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
        printf("p%d:",i+1);
        scanf("%d",&bt[i]);
        p[i]=i+1;
    }
 
    //sorting of burst times
    for(i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
        pos=i;
        for(j=i+1;j<n;j++)
        {
            if(bt[j]<bt[pos])
                pos=j;
        }
 
        temp=bt[i];
        bt[i]=bt[pos];
        bt[pos]=temp;
 
        temp=p[i];
        p[i]=p[pos];
        p[pos]=temp;
    }
 
    wt[0]=0;
 
    //finding the waiting time of all the processes
    for(i=1;i<n;i++)
    {
        wt[i]=0;
        for(j=0;j<i;j++)
             //individual WT by adding BT of all previous completed processes
            wt[i]+=bt[j];
 
        //total waiting time
        total+=wt[i];   
    }
 
    //average waiting time
    avg_wt=(float)total/n;  
 
    printf("\nProcess\t Burst Time \tWaiting Time\tTurnaround Time");
    for(i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
        //turnaround time of individual processes
        tat[i]=bt[i]+wt[i]; 
 
        //total turnaround time
        totalT+=tat[i];      
        printf("\np%d\t\t %d\t\t %d\t\t\t%d",p[i],bt[i],wt[i],tat[i]);
    }
 
    //average turnaround time
    avg_tat=(float)totalT/n;     
    printf("\n\nAverage Waiting Time=%f",avg_wt);
    printf("\nAverage Turnaround Time=%f",avg_tat);
}



#include<stdio.h>
 int main()
{
    //Input no of processed
    int  n;
    printf("Enter Total Number of Processes:");
    scanf("%d", &n);
    int wait_time = 0, ta_time = 0, arr_time[n], burst_time[n], temp_burst_time[n];
    int x = n;
 
    //Input details of processes
    for(int i = 0; i < n; i++)
    {
        printf("Enter Details of Process %d \n", i + 1);
        printf("Arrival Time:  ");
        scanf("%d", &arr_time[i]);
        printf("Burst Time:   ");
        scanf("%d", &burst_time[i]);
        temp_burst_time[i] = burst_time[i];
    }
 
    //Input time slot
    int time_slot;
    printf("Enter Time Slot:");
    scanf("%d", &time_slot);
 
    //Total indicates total time
    //counter indicates which process is executed
    int total = 0,  counter = 0,i;
    printf("Process ID       Burst Time       Turnaround Time      Waiting Time\n");
    for(total=0, i = 0; x!=0; )  
    {  
        // define the conditions
        if(temp_burst_time[i] <= time_slot && temp_burst_time[i] > 0)    
        {  
            total = total + temp_burst_time[i];  
            temp_burst_time[i] = 0;  
            counter=1;  
        }     
        else if(temp_burst_time[i] > 0)  
        {  
            temp_burst_time[i] = temp_burst_time[i] - time_slot;  
            total  += time_slot;    
        }  
        if(temp_burst_time[i]==0 && counter==1)  
        {  
            x--; //decrement the process no.  
            printf("\nProcess No %d  \t\t %d\t\t\t\t %d\t\t\t %d", i+1, burst_time[i],
                   total-arr_time[i], total-arr_time[i]-burst_time[i]);  
            wait_time = wait_time+total-arr_time[i]-burst_time[i];  
            ta_time += total -arr_time[i];  
            counter =0;     
        }  
        if(i==n-1)  
        {  
            i=0;  
        }  
        else if(arr_time[i+1]<=total)  
        {  
            i++;  
        }  
        else  
        {  
            i=0;  
        }  
    }  
    float average_wait_time = wait_time * 1.0 / n;
    float average_turnaround_time = ta_time * 1.0 / n;
    printf("\nAverage Waiting Time:%f", average_wait_time);
    printf("\nAvg Turnaround Time:%f", average_turnaround_time);
    return 0;
}




#include <stdio.h>
 
//Function to swap two variables
void swap(int *a,int *b)
{
    int temp=*a;
    *a=*b;
    *b=temp;
}
int main()
{
    int n;
    printf("Enter Number of Processes: ");
    scanf("%d",&n);
 
    // b is array for burst time, p for priority and index for process id
    int b[n],p[n],index[n];
    for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
        printf("Enter Burst Time and Priority Value for Process %d: ",i+1);
        scanf("%d %d",&b[i],&p[i]);
        index[i]=i+1;
    }
    for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
        int a=p[i],m=i;
 
        //Finding out highest priority element and placing it at its desired position
        for(int j=i;j<n;j++)
        {
            if(p[j] > a)
            {
                a=p[j];
                m=j;
            }
        }
 
        //Swapping processes
        swap(&p[i], &p[m]);
        swap(&b[i], &b[m]);
        swap(&index[i],&index[m]);
    }
 
    // T stores the starting time of process
    int t=0;
 
    //Printing scheduled process
    printf("Order of process Execution is\n");
    for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
        printf("P%d is executed from %d to %d\n",index[i],t,t+b[i]);
        t+=b[i];
    }
    printf("\n");
    printf("Process Id     Burst Time   Wait Time    TurnAround Time\n");
    int wait_time=0;
    for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
        printf("P%d          %d          %d          %d\n",index[i],b[i],wait_time,wait_time + b[i]);
        wait_time += b[i];
    }
    return 0;
}






#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
main()
{
    int bt[20], wt[20], tat[20], i, n;
    float wtavg, tatavg;
    clrscr();
    printf("\\nEnter the number of processes -- ");
    scanf("%d", &n);
    for(i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
        printf("\\nEnter Burst Time for Process %d -- ", i);
        scanf("%d", &bt[i]);
    }
    wt[0] = wtavg = 0;
    tat[0] = tatavg = bt[0];
    for(i=1;i<n;i++)
    {
        wt[i] = wt[i-1] + bt[i-1];
        tat[i] = tat[i-1] + bt[i];
        wtavg = wtavg + wt[i];
        tatavg = tatavg + tat[i];
    }
    printf("\\n\\t PROCESS \\tBURST TIME \\t WAITING TIME\\t TURNAROUND TIME\\n");
    for(i=0;i<n;i++)
        printf("\\n\\t P%d \\t\\t %d \\t\\t %d \\t\\t %d", i, bt[i], wt[i], tat[i]);
    printf("\\nAverage Waiting Time -- %f", wtavg/n);
    printf("\\nAverage Turnaround Time -- %f", tatavg/n);
    getch();
}
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