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python
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class Solution:
    def generateMatrix(self, n: int) -> List[List[int]]:
        matrix = [[-1] * n for _ in range(n)]
        limit = n ** 2

        r, c = 0, 0
        matrix[r][c] = 1
        
        rmax, cmax = n, n
        rmin, cmin = 0, 0

        count = 1

        rmode, cmode = True, False
        forward, backward, upward, downward = True, False, False, False

        while True:
            if rmode:
                if forward:
                    for c in range(c+1, cmax):
                        count = count + 1
                        matrix[r][c] = count
                    forward, downward = False, True
                    rmin += 1
            
                if backward:
                    for c in range(c-1, cmin-1, -1):
                        count = count + 1
                        matrix[r][c] = count
                    backward, upward = False, True
                    rmax -= 1

                if count == limit:
                    return matrix
                else:
                    rmode, cmode = False, True
                
            
            if cmode:
                if downward:
                    for r in range(r+1, rmax):
                        count = count + 1
                        matrix[r][c] = count
                    downward, backward = False, True
                    cmax -= 1
                
                if upward:
                    for r in range(r-1, rmin-1, -1):
                        count = count + 1
                        matrix[r][c] = count
                    upward, forward = False, True
                    cmin += 1

                if count == limit:
                    return matrix
                else:
                    rmode, cmode = True, False

        
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